The main themes of the Canada-U.S. relationship in the 1990s focused on the NAFTA agreement, signed in 1994. It created a common market that, until 2014, was worth $19 trillion, had 470 million people and created millions of jobs.  Wilson says, “Few people dispute that NAFTA has achieved significant and measurable benefits for Canadian consumers, workers and businesses.” But he adds, “NAFTA is well below expectations.”  Comprehensive cooperation has also taken place on many issues indirectly related to the major military programs of Canada and the United States, some of which are recorded by other authors or elsewhere in this study.1 Some examples can be cited. Beginning in 1941, during the war, the two countries agreed to allow increased diversion of water from the Niagara River over the waterfalls to increase the supply of electricity.2 For a similar purpose, an agreement was reached and repeated each year to raise the level of Lake St. Francis on the St. Lawrence River.3 Several measures allowed for a more efficient use of transportation facilities. available on the Great Lakes. In 1941, the two countries agreed to relax their cargo line rules to allow shipping to carry increased quantities of minerals and other materials.4 During the Nixon years (1969-1974), relations deteriorated on many points, including trade disputes, defence agreements, energy, fisheries, environment, cultural imperialism and foreign policy. They changed for the better when Trudeau and President Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) found a better relationship.
In the late 1970s, there was a more sympathetic American attitude to Canada`s political and economic needs, the grace of military service objectors who had moved to Canada, and the crime of yesteryear such as the Watergate scandal and the Vietnam War. Canada has more than ever welcomed U.S. investment during the “stagflation,” which has hurt both nations.  Canada is therefore committed to establishing direct institutional relations with the United States. The International Joint Commission, established in 1909, was the best known. In 1911, Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier went further than most Canadians when he proposed a reciprocal agreement with the United States. .