Wto Agreement Bahasa Indonesia

In November 2001, WTO members meeting at the Fourth Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, decided to begin a new round of negotiations, called Doha Development Round. The themes of these negotiations are multiple, such as agriculture, market access for non-agricultural products, trade facilitation, revision of WTO rules and dispute settlement. This development cycle also takes into account the needs of developing countries and the benefits they can derive from trade. [15] However, members were unable to find a meeting place in different ways. At the fifth ministerial conference in Cancun, Mexico, in 2003, developing countries refused to begin negotiations on the “Singapore themes” of competition policy, investment, public procurement transparency and trade facilitation. [16] [17] At the same time, developed countries have also refused to reduce agricultural subsidies, although developing countries have felt seriously harmed by subsidies because they undermine the competitiveness of their products. This quarrel led to the failure of the cancun ministerial summit. [18] The impasse ended temporarily in mid-2004, following the establishment of the new Doha work programme by the WTO General Council on 1 August 2004, and one of the Council`s most important decisions was not to start negotiations on the Singapore issues. At the sixth Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong in December 2005, WTO members agreed to eliminate agricultural export subsidies by 2013.

However, WTO members have not been able to resolve other issues, such as market access for agricultural products, national aid for agricultural production, market access for non-agricultural products and liberalisation of trade in services. Finally, at the end of July 2006, Pascal Lamy, then Director-General of the WTO, decided to suspend the Doha round of negotiations. [19] Negotiations on minor issues were subsequently not initiated,[20] and Pascal Lamy announced on 31 May 2011 that the Doha Development Round was “dead”. [15] However, at the ninth Ministerial Conference in Bali, Indonesia, in December 2013, WTO members successfully agreed on the “Bali Package” and the most important agreement, which was part of this “package,” was the Trade Facilitation Agreement, which aimed to simplify the customs regime, improve the efficiency and speed of the procedure and reduce compliance costs. [21] There are two opportunities for countries to join the WTO. The first “early accession” can only be used by the countries that joined the gatt and the European Community in 1947. Under Article XI:1 of the WTO Treaty, these countries may be admitted as WTO members if they accept all the terms of the WTO agreement and multilateral agreements under the WTO Treaty, make concessions and make commitments in trade in goods and services, which are then listed on their respective lists. [59] The second method is the accession procedure under Article XII of the WTO agreement. The country or customs territory that wishes to join must accept all the conditions of the WTO agreement and multilateral agreements under that agreement, and then conduct accession negotiations that attempt to adapt the laws and trade practices of future members with WTO rules and the measures that can be taken to adapt them , as well as concessions to trade in goods and trade obligations for services that must be taken by potential members. [60] Levels can generally be divided into four points: the creation of a modern trading system is based on the experience of the interwar period, when countries try to improve their economic situation by adopting policies that have a negative impact on other countries, such as the protectorate, monetary devaluation and capital controls.

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